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Window and Flat Glass for Historical Archaeologists

This Version: February 2001

For Correction, Comments, or additions, please contact:

Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist

University of Iowa

Phone: (319) 335-5702

Decorative Window-panes of the 1830s. Antiques 33(2):81-82.

Excavations at Gawber Glasshouse, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Post-Medieval Archaeology 4:92-140. (Excavation of a glasshouse that manufactured window glass from about 1700 to 1821).

(1987) Excavations at the 17th-18th Century Glasshouse at Bolsterstone and the 18th century Bolsterstone pot house, Stocksbridge, Yorkshire' Post-Medieval Archaeology 21:147-226.

The Impact of Technological Change on the Flat Glass Industry and the Unions' Reactions to Change: Colonial Period to the Present. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkley, California.

Approaches Toward the Dating of 19th Century Ohio Valley Flat Glass. In Proceedings on the Symposium on Ohio Valley Urban and Historic Archaeology, edited by Donald B. Ball and Philip J. DiBlasi, pp. 129-137. Archaeological Survey, University of Louisville, Kentucky.

Cinder Heads in the Hills: the Belgian Window Glass Workers of West Virginia. Humanities Foundation of West Virginia, Charleston.

The Window Glass Industry. Unpublished A.B. thesis, Indiana University, Indianapolis.

American Glass Practice. The Glassworker, Pittsburgh.

An Approach to Quantifying Window Glass. In 'CAA90: Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 1990, Kris Lockyear and Sebastian Rahtz, eds., pp. 127-131, BAR International Series S565, Oxford.

Bayley, Justine and Catherine Mortimer (1991)

The Glass from Site 95, Wharram Percy, Yorkshire. Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 48/91, English Heritage, London. (Use of SEM in dating window glass).

The Flat Glass Industry of Illinois. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois.

Elements of Glass and Glassmaking. Glass and Pottery Publishing Company, Pittsburgh.

Roman Window Glass from Wales. Journal of Glass Studies 8:41-45.

A Drawn Sheet Glass Process of 1871. Glass Industry 39(9):482-483, 509-510

Window Treatments for Historic Houses, 1700-1850. Preservation Leaflet Series 14. National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C.

Conservation of Historic Window Glass. Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 8(3):3-10.

Medieval Painted Window Glass. In Archaeology in Bath 1976-1985, Peter Davenport, ed., pp. 26-29, Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph, Oxford, UK.

Records and the Nailsea [Somerset] Glassworks. Connoisseur 165:168-72. (Manufacturers of crown glass from 1844 onwards, and rolled plate glass beginning in the 1860s).

Crown and Sheet Glass. In The Principles of Glassmaking, edited by Harry J. Powell, pp. 101-139. George Bell and Sons, London.

Roman Window Glass from Chichester, Sussex. Journal of Glass Studies 19:182.

Using Window Glass to Interpret Archaeological Context. Unpublished senior honors thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

The Netherlandish Window Glass in the Church of St John the Evangelist, Rownhams, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society 43:175-84.

The Crown Glass Cutter and Glazier's Manual. Oliver and Boyd. Edinburgh.

Some References to Ceramics and Glass in the Wynn of Gwydir Papers. Medieval and Later Pottery in Wales 10:65-9. (Contains some rather cryptic references to window glass of Normandy and Burgundy type are given in letters dated early 17th century).

The Multivariate Analysis of Data Relating to the Durability of Medieval Window Glass. Review of Arch'ometry 5:119-128.

Window Glass from the Monastic Site of Jarrow. Journal of Glass Studies 17:88-96.

Glassmaking in Bagot's Park, Staffordshire, in the 16th Century. Post-Medieval Archaeology 1:44-83. (Manufacture of crown and possibly cylinder glass).

A Survey of the Technology and Conservation of Plain Window Glass. Conservation News 34 (London) 34:16-19.

Window Glass in Eighteenth Century Williamsburg. In Five Artifact Studies, pp. 78-79. Colonial Williamsburg Occasional Papers in Archaeology No. 1, Williamsburg, Virginia.

The Development of the American Glass Industry. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Ninth-Century Window Glass from the Monastery of San Vincenzo al Volturno (Molise, Italy). Journal of Glass Studies 39: 33-41.

The Curiosities of Industry: Glass and its Manufacture. George Routledge and Company, London.

A History of Glassmaking. G.T. Foulis and Company, Ltd., Henley on Thames, UK.

Egan, Geoff, Susan D. Hanna, and Barry Knight. (1986)

Marks on Milled Window Leads. Post-Medieval Archaeology 20: 303-309.

Flat Glass. The Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass Company. Toledo.

Medieval Window Glass from the Priory, Kings Langley. Hertfordshire Archaeology 3:73-77.

Glassmaker's Handbook: Containing Recipes for Making Flint, Bottle, Window and Architectural Glass. . George E. Williams, Pittsburgh.

Medieval Window Glass: Its Composition and Decay. In 'The Proceedings of the 22nd Symposium on Archaeometry held at the University of Bradford, Bradford, UK, 30th March - 3rd April 1982, A. Aspinall and S.E. Warren, eds., pp. 181-183, University of Bradford Schools of Physics & Archaeological Sciences, Bradford, UK.

(1988) Decay of Medieval Stained Glass at York, Canterbury and Carlisle. Part 1: Composition of the Glass and its Weathering Products; Part 2: Relationship Between the Composition of the Glass, its Durability, and the Weathering Products. Glastechnische Berichte 61:75-84 and 101-107. (Examines decomposition by means of XRF spectrometry).

A History of Trade-unions in the Window Glass Industry out of which Grew the Window Glass Cutters League of America. Window Glass Cutters League of America, Columbus, Ohio. (This story appeared in serial form in the Glass cutter, beginning in March and ending in September, 1943; available as a single document on microform, Microfilming Corp. of America, Sanford, North Carolina).

The Plate Glass Book. 4th Edition. Glass House Clerk, London.

An Extension of the Formula Dating Method in Clay Pipes, Wine Bottles, and Window Glass. The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 10. University of South Carolina, Columbia.

Domestic Window Glass: Roman, Saxon and Medieval. In Studies in Building History, edited by E.M. Jope, pp. 39-63. Odhams Press, London.

Plate Glass. In The Principles of Glassmaking. edited by Harry J. Powell, pp. 140-72. George Bell and Sons, London, England.

Glass Working by Heat and Abrasion. Cassell and Company, Ltd., New York.

History of Glassmaking: Introduction to Machine Methods; Window Glass. Glass Container 6:9-30.

Complete History of the Manufacture of Window Glass Together with a Review of Labor Organizations, also Many Interesting and Instructive Sketches and Humorous Reminiscences Connected with the Trade. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Conflict and Cooperation: Labour-Management Relations in the Toledo Flat Glass Industry, 1941-48. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Reflections on the Picture Window. Journal of American Culture 6: 26-37.

Windows Inscribed Dairy. Vernacular Architecture 18: 52-53.

Window Glass in Kentucky, 1790 to 1940: Potential Characteristics and Variation of the Archaeological Assemblage as Produced by the Processes of Manufacture, Distribution, Use, and Deposition. Unpublished M.A. thesis, department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Reminiscences of Glassmaking. Hurd and Houghton, New York.

Jones, Olive R., and Catherine Sullivan (1985)

The Parks Canada Glass Glossary for the Description of Containers, Tableware, Flat Glass, and Closures. National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Window Glass and Spirit Bottles: A Fragile Industry Begins. Timelines 5:46-50.

Early Window Glass. Antiques 32(2):69.

Kimes, Arthur, W. and Thomas A. Kimes (1930)

Directory of Glass Factories in the United States and Canada: Embracing Manufacturers of Pressed and Blown Ware, Specialties, Cut Glass and Tubing, Bottles and Hollow Ware, Window Glass, Polished Plate Glass, Wire, Opalescent, Fancy Figured, Rough and Ribbed, Glass Tile, Laminated, Glass Trade Associations, Workingmen's Associations. Budget Publishing Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Evaluation of Fragments of Window Glass as Evidence in Criminal Cases. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Michigan State University. School of Police Administration and Public Safety, East Lansing, Michigan.

Early American Glass. The Century Company, New York.

Houses of Glass: A Nineteenth Century Building Type. Translated by John C. Harvey MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. (History of greenhouses).

Flat-Drawn Glass. In Manufacturing Processes in Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Rebels and Governors: Reflections on a Stained-glass Window. Virginia Cavalcade 27(3):124-127.

The Manufacture of Porcelain and Glass. History of Technology Series No. 4, Noyes Press, Park Ridge, New Jersey. (Unabridged reproduction of first edition published in London in 1832).

The Origin of the Sash Window. Architectural History 26:49-72.

(1993) `The advantage of a clearer light': The Sash-Window as a Harbinger of an Age of Progress and Enlightenment. In Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought. Ben Farmer and Hentie Louw, eds., pp. 300-308. Routledge, New York.

American Decorative Window Glass, 1860-1890: the Home as a Heaven Below. National Building Museum, Washington, D.C.

Window Glass. In English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products, John Blair and Nigel Ramsey, eds., pp. 265-294, Hambledon Press, London.

Glass in Architecture. Architectural Press, London.

McKearin, George and Helen McKearin (1941)

American Glass. Crown Publishers, New York.

Windows on the Past: A Chronological Scheme for the Thickness of Pane Fragments from 1635-1982. Report on file. National Park Service, Midwest Archaeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.

(1987) Socioeconomic and Chronometric Patterning of Window Glass. In Historic Buildings, Material Culture, and People of the Prairie Margin: Architecture, Artifacts, and Synthesis of Historic Arch'ology. 5, edited by David H. Jurney and Randall W. Moir, pp. 73-81. Richland Creek Technical Series. Archaeology Research Program, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX.

Window Glass in the Making. American Window Glass Company, Pittsburgh.

The Repair of Historic Wooden Windows. United States Department of the Interior, Technical Preservation Services Division, Preservation Assistance Division, Washington, D.C.

A `Thick' Description of Windows. In Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought. Ben Farmer and Hentie Louw, eds., pp. 362-367. Routledge, New York.

The Weathering of Medieval Window Glass. Journal of Glass Studies 17:161-168.

New York Museum of Science and Industry (1934)

Window Glass from Early Times to the Present. Department of Education, New York Museum of Science and Industry, New York.

A Window on Williamsburg. Colonial Williamsburg 20(1):32-39.

Cinderheads and Iron Lungs: Window Glass Craftsmen and the Transformation of Workers' Control, 1880-1905. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

(1997) Perfecting the 'Iron Lung': Making the New Window Glass Technology Work. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology 23(1): 6-24.

Windows and Parts. Old House Journal 2(6):7-9.

A Mean Flat Glass Dating Method for the Southeastern Unites States. Unpublished manuscript on file, Southeast Archaeological Center, Tallahassee, Florida.

An Archaeological Study of Nineteenth Century U.S. and Historic "Old Goshen" Window Glass. Unpublished manuscript on file, Department of Anthropology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

(1985) Studies of Fingerprinting Historic Nineteenth Century Window Glass. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Window Glass Quantification and its Implications for Traditional Dating Techniques. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Symposium on Ohio Valley Urban and Historic Archaeology, Greenville, Ohio.

Re: Window Glass. Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 3(4):11.

(1981) A History of Window Glass Manufacture in Canada. Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 13(3):33-47.

(1982) Talk to Me of Windows: A Glossary. Old House Journal 10(4):73-76.

The Window Glass Makers of St. Helens. Society for Glass Technology, London.

Defects in Glass. Glass Publications, Ltd., London.

Flat Glass Technology. Plenum Press, New York.

Ultra Violet Therapy and the Use of Special Window Glass. W.E. Philips Company, Ltd., Oshawa, Ontario.

Flat Glass: Evolution and Revolution over 60 Years. Glass Technology 17(5).

The Glass Ribbon: Development of the Australian Flat Glass Industry. Pilkington ACI, Ltd., Melbourne, Australia.

Discrimination of Flat Glass by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Methods. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Calgary.

Flat Glass: Its Use as a Dating Tool for Nineteenth Century Archaeological Sites in the Pacific Northwest and Elsewhere. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, Memoir 4, Moscow, Idaho.

5000 Years of Glass. Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York.

Glass Manufacture. Archibald Constable and Company, Ltd., London.

Windows and Window Glass in the United States before 1860. Unpublished paper originally prepared for Columbia University, School of Architecture, Technology of Early American Building Course. On file, Columbia University, School of Architecture, New York.

Flat Glass. In Waverly Plantation: Ethnoarchaeology of a Tenant Farming Community, edited by William H. Adams, pp. 491-495. Report Submitted to Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Atlanta, Georgia.

(1981) Flat Glass. In Bay Springs Mill: Historical Archaeology of a Rural Mississippi Cotton Milling Community, edited by William H. Adams, pp. 491-495. National Technical Information Service, Washington, D.C.

A Window on Santa Fe's History. El Palacio 88(3): 29-39.

Windows on the Plains: Flat Glass from the Nineteenth Century Plains Frontier. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

(1990) Window Glass on the Plains: An Analysis of Flat Glass Samples from Ten Nineteenth Century Plains Historic Sites. Central Plains Archaeology 2(1):57-90.

Mirrors: A Guide to the Manufacture of Mirrors and Reflecting Surfaces. Pelham Books, London.

Growth of the American Glass Industry to 1880. Journal of Political Economy 52(3):193-216.

(1944) Growth of the American Glass Industry to 1880-continued. Journal of Political Economy 52(4):340-355.

(1948) Revolution in Glassmaking. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Post-medieval Window Glass. In Archaeology in Bath 1976-1985, Peter Davenport, ed., pp. 1:B7-10, Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph, Oxford, UK.

A Technical History of Late Nineteenth Century Windows in the United States. Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 17(1): 31-37.

English Glass. Adam and Charles Black, London.

The Eyes of the House. Early American Life 10(4):42-45.

Window Glass: Report of the United States Tariff Commission to the President of the United States. Differences in Costs of Production of Window Glass in the United States and in the Principal Competing Country, as Ascertained Pursuant to the Provisions of Section 315 of Title III of the Tariff Act of 1922. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Analysis of Flat Glass. Wisconsin Archaeologist 71(1-2):88-91.

Excavations of the Arkansas Post Branch of the Bank of the State of Arkansas, Arkansas Post National Monument, Arkansas. Southeast Archaeology Center, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

Spon's Encyclopedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures and Products, Division III. E. Spon, London.

Art Glass Window Design in Vancouver: The Role of the Pattern Book. Material History Bulletin (6):74-114.

A Short Note on an Early Sash Window Found at East Hampton, Long Island Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 10(1):55-62.

Report on the Manufacture of Glass. U.S. Census Office, Tenth Census, 1880. 47th Congress, 2nd Session, House Miscellaneous Document Pt. 2, No. 42 (Serial 2130), pp. 1029-152.

Window Glass. Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 3(4):11.

(1980) Eighteenth-Century Black Window Glazing in Philadelphia. Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 12(2):122-123.

Flat Glass Analysis of Goodland Cypress Sawmill, Chacahoula, Louisiana. Paper presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Pensacola, Florida.

(1985) Some Comments on the Methodological Assumptions of the Flat Glass Dating Technique. Paper presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Boston, Massachusetts.

A Window to the Past: Analysis of Flat Glass Recovered from West Point, Nevada. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Glazed Windows in Scotland with Special Reference to the Use of Metals Materials and Traditions in Scottish Building: Essays in Memory of Sonia Hackett. Anne Riches and Geoffrey Stell, eds., pp. 59-65, Regional and Thematic Series, No. 2. Scottish Vernacular Buildings Working Group, Edinburgh.

English Looking Glasses: A Study of the Glass, Frames and Makers. A.S. Barnes and Company, New York

New England Glass and Glassmaking. Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York.

(1976) Window Glass in America. In Building Early America: Contributions Toward the History of a Great Industry, Charles E. Peterson, ed., pp. 150-165. Chilton Book Company, Radnor, Pennsylvania.

(1982) Window Glass in Historic Houses. American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee.

For Correction, Comments, or additions, please contact:

Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist

University of Iowa

Phone: (319) 335-5702

Here it is: Complete catalogue of 'same-sex marriage' violations of faith

Here’s a list of cases in which Christians have been accused of violating non-discrimination laws for following the dictates of their faith, “gay” advocates have refused to do business with Christians, homosexuals have retaliated for a business owner’s Christian stance, or an official’s First Amendment religious rights have been brushed aside:

The involvement of the state agency developed after a local reporter in Pinedale, upon the U.S. Supreme Court’s creation of same-sex “marriage” for the U.S., asked Neely whether she was excited to perform such ceremonies.

Well no, the judge responded, because her faith wouldn’t allow her to do that.

The fracas has caught the attention, and outrage, of two of the major legal organizations defending religious rights in America, the Alliance Defending Freedom, which is representing Neely in her fight over basic religious liberties and against the extremism of the same-sex “marriage” advocates on the state commission, and the Becket Fund for Religion Liberty, which took up Neely’s cause in a friend-of-the-court brief.

The point is that Neely is not allowed to solemnize marriages in her role as a municipal judge, and while she is allowed to as a magistrate, there is no requirement for that, there is no pay for it and there are a multitude of situations in which magistrates can cite personal objections and decline to do so.

“It takes real chutzpah for the government to come in like the Keystone Kops but still ask an innocent judge to pay the price,” Becket Fund legal counsel Daniel Blomberg said as the case developed.

Missouri State has dismissed a student, Andrew Cash, from a counseling program over his expression of concern over counseling same-sex duos, according to a new lawsuit.

The lawsuit, from the Thomas More Society, a legal team based in Chicago, alleges the discrimination came at the hands of Missouri State governors Peter Hofherr, Joe Carmichael, Stephen Hoven, Carrie Tergin, Beverly Miller, Gregory Spears, Kendall Seal, Tyree Lewis, Gabrial Gore and Virginia Fry, as well as President Clifton Smart III, Internship Coordinator Kristi Perryman, Tamara Arthaud, the head of the counseling department, and Angela Anderson, a faculty member.

“Plaintiff was targeted and punished for expressing his Christian worldview regarding a hypothetical situation concerning whether he would provide counseling services to a gay/homosexual couple. Since he did not give the ‘correct’ answer required by his counseling instructors, he was considered unsuitable for counseling and terminated from the program,” the lawsuit alleges.

A university spokeswoman told WND, “We do not comment on pending litigation.”

Then she commented, “We do not discriminate based on religion or any other protected classes.”

The law firm explained Cash was dismissed from his M.S. in Counseling program after “expressing concern over counseling same-sex couples due to his religious views. His suit claims that he is unable to be a counselor and suffers daily emotional grief and pain. He is also seeking MSU to reinstate him in his [program] with safeguards so that he can earn his degree.”

Cash was a student “in excellent standing and nearing the completing of his degree” when he was removed, the complaint explains.

A federal judge in Kentucky brushed off the First Amendment religious rights of Rowan County Clerk Kim Davis and ordered her to issue same-sex “marriage” licenses in violation of her constitutionally protected rights.

The case immediately was taken to the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.

The ruling from David Bunning said Davis can believe what she chooses privately. But he ruled she cannot exercise her “freedom of religion” publicly.

“The state is not asking her to condone same-sex unions on moral or religious grounds, nor is it restricting her from engaging in a variety of religious activities. Davis remains free to practice her Apostolic Christian beliefs. She may continue to attend church twice a week, participate in Bible study and ministry to female inmates at the Rowan County Jail. She is even free to believe that marriage is a union between one man and one woman, as many Americans do.

“However, her religious convictions cannot excuse her from performing the duties that she took an oath to perform as Rowan County Clerk,” he said, citing the same-sex “marriage” right that was created only weeks ago by the Supreme Court.

Early in President Obama’s tenure in the White House, Catholic Online and other media outlets reported what appeared to be a deliberate attack on the Constitution’s “freedom of religion” protections.

The report noted a crucial change in Obama’s language between his June 2009 speech in Cairo, Egypt, where he spoke of a Muslim America and its “freedom of religion,” and the November 2009 memorial for the Fort Hood soldiers gunned down by a radical Muslim, where he termed it “freedom of worship.”

From that point on, “freedom of worship” has become the term of choice, the report said.

The Daily Signal reported that Gortz Haus Gallery and bistro owners Betty and Richard Odgaard decided to close down their business after reaching a $5,000 settlement with a homosexual duo.

Their business, a former church, had offered wedding services, but they declined, because of their Mennonite faith, to host the alternative sexual lifestyle event when asked. They knew they would be targeted by regulations in their state of Iowa if they continued, so they shut off wedding services, and their business dried up.

“We can’t pretend it’s going to get better,” Betty Odgaard said. “There wasn’t enough business.”

They’re hoping the Gortz Haus eventually will be a church again

“That would be the most wonderful option,” Betty said

According to a report in USA Today, Dieseltec owner Brian Klawiter of Grandville, Michigan, said in a Facebook post. “Well, folks, as we predicted, it didn’t take long for the ugly face of the homosexual movement to present itself.

“What started out with ‘mere’ death threats against myself and my family and homosexuals spamming my Facebook page with gay porn shots, has escalated to physical violence,” he wrote.

He cited slogans spray-painted on his business, on his pickup truck, and on a garage door, and a rock thrown through a window.

Klawiter had stirred the pot of social values a week earlier when he posted a note he would decline to provide service to openly homosexual customers.

WND reported when two magistrates in North Carolina were ordered to perform same-sex “weddings” or resign, and now are suing their state over the reported violation of their constitutional rights.

Thomas Holland and Gilbert Breedlove have sued in Wake County Superior Court over direct orders, and threats, from the North Carolina Administrative Office of the Courts.

They want the state to follow its own constitution and return them to their jobs with an acknowledgment that they are not required to perform weddings for same-sex duos.

The North Carolina office for the court system had said, “Magistrates should begin immediately conducting marriages of all couples presenting a marriage license issued by the register of deeds. … A failure to do so would be violation of the U.S. Constitution under the federal ruling and would constitute a violation of the oath and a failure to perform a duty of the office.”

Penalties? Possible suspension, removal from office and criminal counts, the office warned.

But the state constitution protects who live by their faith, their case notes.

In Texas, David and Edie Delmore own a bakery, and were approached by Ben Valencia and Luis Marmolejo about a cake for a “gay wedding.”

They declined, referring the potential customers to other bakers.

According to a report, “Since then their home has been vandalized and their son has been threatened with rape by a broken beer bottle.”

Julie Brown Patton reported for The Gospel Herald the attacks came right after a local newspaper reported the “gay” duo were publicly accusing them of discrimination.

Edie reported, “Our son got a call where they threatened to burn our hose down and violate him with a broken beer bottle. That was probably the worst.”

The cake had been requested by former pastor Joshua Feuerstein, who made a video of the exchange. He took it down when requested, but Sharon Haller of Cut the Cake later reposted.

He had asked for a cake that said, “We do not support gay marriage.”

Feuerstein said in the video, “For me, this is not about gay people; it’s about religious freedom.”

He continued, “I wanted to see if it was actually a double standard; if a gay-friendly bakery and one that advertised themselves as so on pro-LGBT wedding sites would actually bake a cake that went against their principles.”

Feuerstein later told WESH 2 Television, “You know what, I actually believe that Cut the Cake has every right as an American to refuse to print that on a cake.”

Haller complained of “nasty” phone calls and “negative gestures.” She said she lost money and she was investigating her legal options, and said the recorded phone call is illegal in Florida.

Family-owned Memories Pizza in Indiana came into the crosshairs of homosexuals when an owner was interviewed by a local TV station in the aftermath of the adoption of the state’s religious freedom law.

Responding to a reporter’s question, the owner said that while her restaurant serves gays, her Christian faith wouldn’t allow her to cater a “gay wedding.”

The restaurant immediately became a focal point of outrage toward the law, with threats of death and and destruction, causing the owners to shut down their business.

In response, however, an Internet campaign raised more than $840,000 for the family in just a few days.

Owners Kevin and Christie O’Connor said they eventually planned to reopen their doors.

The Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association was begun in 1869 to provide a place for Christian meetings and assemblies, and it still operates as one of the more popular destinations for such events on the East Coast.

It houses one of the world’s 20 largest pipe organs and there are both traditional and contemporary worship programs all summer long that have featured speakers such as Billy Graham, Norman Vincent Peale, Robert Schuller, Billy Sunday, D. James Kennedy and Charles Stanley.

But the location no longer is used for weddings, because a lesbian duo was denied permission to use it, and a state discrimination complaint was filed.

The ACLU reported in 2012 that the ruling from an administrative law judge found the Christian group was guilty of discrimination for refusing to grant Harriet Bernstein and Luisa Paster access to its property for their ceremony.

Solomon A. Metzger of the state’s Office of Administrative Law found that in March 2007, when Paster and Bernstein filled out a reservation form, the pavilion was a public accommodation. The judge determined that the Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association breached its agreement to make the pavilion available to the public on an equal basis.

Cynthia and Robert Gifford, owners of Liberty Ridge Farm near Albany, had allowed others to use their land for birthday events and a few weddings. But when Jennifer McCarthy and Melisa Erwin asked for access, the owners said they would allow a reception but not a wedding, because of their religious beliefs.

The state said the couple’s religious beliefs were of no account.

Administrative Law Judge Migdalia Pares said the Giffords’ home is a place of public accommodation and, therefore, is subject to the New York Human Rights law.

The judge ruled, “The fact that the Giffords also reside at Gifford Barn does not render it private.”

The Colorado Civil Rights Commission eventually ordered the baker, Jack Phillips of Masterpiece Cakeshop, to use his artistry to celebrate homosexual unions in violation of his Christian beliefs, but the case is on appeal in the courts.

A state commissioner, Diann Rice, likened Christians to slaver owners and Nazis.

Her words: “I would also like to reiterate what we said in the hearing or the last meeting. Freedom of religion and religion has been used to justify all kinds of discrimination throughout history, whether it be slavery, whether it be the Holocaust, whether it be – I mean, we – we can list hundreds of situations where freedom of religion has been used to justify discrimination. And to me it is one of the most despicable pieces of rhetoric that people can use to – to use their religion to hurt others.”

There was no claim in the case that the homosexuals were unable to get a cake, only that they were unable to get it from Masterpiece.

The city is demanding the Christian ministers at the chapel perform same-sex weddings in violation of their faith, and WND reported recently the case is headed back to court after negotiations between the parties failed.

“The government can’t tell ministers they must perform same-sex marriages under threat of jail time and crippling fines,” said Alliance Defending Freedom Senior Legal Counsel Jeremy Tedesco.

“That’s exactly what the city did to Pastor Knapp and what the ordinance allows the city to do to others. In the absence of a settlement agreement, we look forward to vindicating our client’s freedom in court.”

In Washington state, florist Barronelle Stutzman already has been penalized $1,001 for declining to support a same-sex wedding with her floral talents.

And the judge ruling in the case has opened her savings, personal possessions and even home up as a target for the homosexuals who wanted her artistic talents and now are claiming her assets as damages.

Alex Ekstrom, the judge, said Stutzman, owner of Arlene’s Flowers in Richland, Washington, must pay $1,001 to the state prosecutors who charged her with discrimination.

But the Alliance Defending Freedom attorneys representing Stutzman warned that the precedent, not the dollar figure, is the problem.

Kristen Waggoner, ADF senior counsel, said the award to Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson boils down to a government threat to Christians: “Surrender your religious liberty and free speech rights, or face personal and professional ruin.”

Stutzman was sued even though the man who filed the complaint was referred to several other willing florists and even was offered free flowers.

Ekstrom’s latest order also said the “defendants and their officers, agents, servants, employees, and attorneys, and those persons in active concert or participation with them … are permanently enjoined and restrained from violating the Washington Law Against Discrimination.”

Ekstrom also said the homosexuals, Robert Ingersoll and Curt Freed, “are entitled to an award of actual damages,” but he reserved determination of the amount until after any appeal has been exhausted.

The Benham brothers were en route to a new HGTV television show when homosexual activists made an issue of their belief in biblical marriage.

The network canceled their real estate show, which was to be called “Flip it Forward.”

The video explains: “So the RFRA is a shield, not a sword. It doesn’t get offensive and promote ‘hate’ as the hype said. But it’s a shield to protect companies, like, for instance, a Jewish-owned jewelry. It keeps the state from forcing him to create rings with the Nazi symbol on it. Or a Muslim-owned apparel company. It prevents the state from forcing him to maybe make T-shirts with the cross over the crescent.

“Or even a gay-owned apparel company from creating T-shirts that say Leviticus 18:22. Homosexuality is a sin.”

Very simply, “the state should never force business owners to promote a message or an idea that conflicts with their beliefs,” David Benham states.

In a New Mexico dispute, courts ordered that a photographer could not refuse to use her talents to memorialize a homosexual wedding.

Elaine Huguenin, co-owner with her husband, Jonathan, of Elane Photography, had declined to provide her artistic talents to Vanessa Willock.

Willock, who found another photographer for the event, filed a complaint with the state under its anti-discrimination law. The state Supreme Court said the photographer had no right to not be forced to express statements through her work that violated her Christian beliefs.

Giving up one’s religious faith, the court said, was “the price of citizenship.”

An Oregon baker also was caught in the same fight, as well as several other venue owners, and there’s even the same conflict in the United Kingdom.

He was attacked by homosexual activists and eventually lost his position for donating $1,000 to support the 2008 Proposition 8 marriage-definition initiative that was approved by the majority of voters of progressive California.

According to WND CEO Joseph Farah’s commentary on the issue, “Apparently, according to this new litmus test of the ‘tolerance’ police, anyone who supported the popular proposition no longer deserves to work in California.”

Eich was described as a tech prodigy, “having invented the programming language jаvascript and co-founded Mozilla.”

The Aloha Bed & Breakfast in Hawaii, a Christian business, was forced to “accommodate” two Southern California lesbians after a judge ruled the B&B violated state law when the owner told Taeko Bufford and Diane Cervelli she wasn’t comfortable having them stay together in her home due to her religious beliefs. Aloha has since been ordered by the state “to provide a room to any same-sex couple that wishes to stay there.”

In Illinois, Christian B&B owners Jim and Beth Walder are being sued by homosexual activist Todd Wathen, who demands monetary damages, attorneys’ fees and “an order directing [the Walders] to cease and desist from any violation” of the state’s Human Rights Act.

Vermont’s Wildflower Inn paid a settlement and shut down its wedding reception business after the ACLU won a $10,000 civil penalty for two lesbians. The settlement also requires the inn’s owners to place $20,000 in a charitable trust for the lesbians.

Gresham, Oregon bakery owners Aaron and Melissa Klein were forced to close their storefront, Sweet Cakes by Melissa, in 2013 shortly after a lesbian couple filed a civil rights complaint against them. The Kleins declined to bake a cake for the same-sex “wedding” due to their religious beliefs. At that time, same-sex “marriage” wasn’t legal in Oregon.

In April 2015 an Oregon administrative law judge ordered the Kleins to pay $135,000 in fines to the lesbian couple for “emotional, mental, and physical suffering.” The severe ruling is an attempt to “rehabilite” and “re-educate” Christian businesses.

The owners of Indiana’s “Just Cookies” were charged with “discrimination” under the city’s “sexual orientation” law for refusing to fill a special order for “rainbow cookies” for an LGBT group.

Iowa’s “Victoria’s Cake Cottage,” whose owner, Victoria Childress, refused to provide a wedding cake for a homosexual couple out of “convictions for their lifestyle.”

Oregon’s Fleur Cakes joined Sweet Cakes in refusing to bake a wedding cake for a same-sex couple and is being boycotted by homosexual activist groups.

Texas’ All Occasion Party Place, a Fort Worth venue, refuses, on religious grounds, to rent out a banquet hall for same-sex wedding receptions.

A Christian T-shirt maker in Kentucky was targeted by the Lexington-Fayette Urban County Human Rights Commission for refusing to print “gay pride” designs for a local homosexual group.

Chris Penner, owner of the Twilight Room Annex bar in Portland, was fined $400,000 under the Oregon Equality Act for excluding transsexual men who, dressed as women, had been alienating other customers by using the women’s restroom. According to the Seattle Times, 11 people – calling themselves the “T-girls” – “will get the money, with awards ranging from $20,000 to 50,000.”

The “Duck Dynasty” star Phil Robertson, an evangelical Christian, faced a firestorm of protest after he told GQ magazine he believed homosexuality is a sin. A&E, the show’s creator, said it was suspending him indefinitely, but then a massive public backlash forced the network into retreat and he was reinstated.

Fox Sports Southwest broadcaster Craig James was fired after a GOP debate tape showed him expressing Christian beliefs in opposition to “homosexual marriage” surfaced.

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